From dry planting to water-seeding.
Last year I wrote an article on
water management on March 29. Following
is most of the first paragraph
of that article. I had no idea at the
time of how much of it would be
accurate and how different it would be this year. “While I
have not had any calls about salt water this year (2011), if
it remains as dry as it has been since January, they will
come in. At this writing, most of the rice in the southwestern
area is planted, much of it drilled, and waiting for rain
or a flush. When everyone cranks up their pumps around the
same time, the supply of fresh surface water is likely to
become critical in some areas.”
That was last year.
Until a month or so ago, we were still concerned about
fresh water. Thanks in part to two major rainfall events,
the first dumping from one to six inches of water over the
course of a couple of days and a more recent event that
soaked us with from two to 15 inches of water in a 12-hour period.
Most of the flooding problems were in an area just north of Lafayette
and not a major rice-growing area. However, the runoff is still moving
south, and a lot of farmers are behind in their planting intentions
because they were set up to drill or dry broadcast their seed. A year
ago, we were nearly finished planting in south Louisiana in contrast
to being 50 percent planted by the end of March this year.
Quite a few farmers decided to switch from dry planting to waterseeding.
While that seems simple, it poses several problems. First, the
amount of seed used to water-seed is one and one-half to two times
the quantity needed for drill seeding. Our Rice Varieties and Management
Tips publication explains this in detail, recommending from
60 to 90 pounds per acre for drill seeding and from 90 to 125 pounds
per acre for water-seeding. Farmers who intended to drill seed a new
variety in short supply might not find enough seed to cover it.
In other cases, some farmers intended to drill then pull internal
levees. Wet conditions prevented them from constructing the levees,
thus they could not hold the water necessary for water-seeding.
In the past, most farmers built levees and installed gates ahead of
typical winter rains, allowing them to capture rain water. The expense of having to pump up a field because it is too wet is truly ironic.
Still other farmers had prepared their fields in the fall with the
intention of drill seeding into a stale seedbed. In the early days of
reduced tillage rice farming (prior to Clearfield technology), stand failure
was a common problem when seed were flown into standing
water on stale seedbed fields. The problem was and remains obtaining
good seed-to-soil contact. I have seen seeds with a two- to threeinch
long root suspended in vegetation or simply floating in the
water. These seeds seldom survive.
Switching from dry planting to water-seeding also affects fertilizer
application and timing and pest management. Herbicide programs in
dry-seeded rice are often different from those employed when waterseeding
is practiced, especially if water-seeding is done in conjunction
with pinpoint flood water management. Only Dermacor is labeled
as a seed treatment insecticide for water-seeded rice.
This is all pointing to a later crop than we would like to see. If it gets
as hot this summer as it has for the past two, and the crop is delayed,
we are going to suffer even more problems with poor seed set and
more bacterial panicle blight. Unlike fairy tales, seldom are things “just
right” in the real world.
Mississippi rice producers have become
very efficient with water use over the last
couple of decades. Precision land forming
has been a most effective tool for improving
water conservation. Side-inlet irrigation has been another
effective water conservation method for rice.
Even with the above mentioned water conservation methods
being utilized, rice producers can still reduce water use with
Intermittent flooding initiates the flood as we always have in
conventional flooding systems. However, after the flood is established,
it is allowed to subside down to mud in the top paddy
before the flood is reestablished.
Intermittent flooding allows for an increased potential in rainfall
capture when the flood is allowed to subside each time. Also,
this system can increase water conservation by reducing over
pumping by always keeping the paddies full. The first two weeks
of flooding are more critical for nitrogen fertilizer efficiency and
weed control. As you move further into the season, it becomes easier
to let the flood subside.
This is not a one-size-fits-all flooding program. Intermittent
flooding has its best fit on heavy clay soils. These soils have a high
water holding capacity level. Therefore, it is hard for them to
quickly dry out.
Sandy to silt loam soils could be more of an issue utilizing
intermittent flooding. These types of soils tend to dry out quicker
and can have higher percolation rates. Also, areas where neck
blast continues to be a problem, intermittent flooding would not
Employing the use of side-inlet irrigation alone in a straight
levee production system would save approximately $13 to $15 per
acre over traditional flooding of straight levee rice. With intermittent
flooding, another savings of $10 to $25 per acre could
be realized due the reduction in pumping cost.
Water conservation in rice begins with side-inlet irrigation.
The use of polypipe adds more flexibility in rice water use, such
as intermittent flooding.
Adopting water conservation methods will be very difficult
without beginning with side-inlet irrigation.
Water and water management in rice production
are huge issues in Texas due to the
extreme drought last year. We know the value
of conserving water and we have adopted many of the techniques,
such as precision leveling, polypipe, multiple inlets, vegetation control
in inlet canals and ditches, good weed management, early planting,
early maturing varieties, frequent and careful inspections of levees
and water gates, use of “freeboard” to capture rainwater, shallow
flood, avoiding spillage, etc.
Not only Texas farmers, but farmers in all rice-producing states
must conserve this precious natural resource. The population of
Texas is growing rapidly. The Texas Water Resources Institute estimates
the Texas population will increase from 25.4 million to 46.3
million from 2010 to 2060 – an 82 percent increase over 50 years!
Basically, our farmers are competing with urban/suburban communities
and industry for water – now and in the future. The drought
simply exacerbated the situation and drove home the importance of
water conservation and development/exploitation of new water
resources. To illustrate the competition for water among rice farmers,
urban communities and industry, I contacted the Lower Neches Valley
Authority (LNVA), which supplies water for rice grown in Jefferson,
Chambers and Liberty Counties. These counties are located
east of Houston. Water rates are: $20.00, $65.17 and $81.46/acre-ft
for agriculture, municipal and industrial uses, respectively.
This eastern portion of the Texas Rice Belt has received above
normal amounts of rainfall during the winter. In fact, at the Beaumont
Center, from the start of 2012 to the end of March, 20.81 inches of rain have fallen compared to the historical average of 12.76 inches. So, the
LNVA will not restrict water use for area rice farmers for both main
and ratoon crops. This “unexpected relief from drought” will provide
water for approximately 22,000 acres of rice east of Houston in 2012.
However, west and south of Houston is a different story. According
to the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), which supplies
surface water to the major rice-growing area of Texas, the combined
storage of lakes Buchanan and Travis (northwest of Austin) was
below 850,000 acre-feet on March 1. This triggered water restrictions
for most rice farmers relying on Colorado River water. So, these
rice farmers will not receive any water in 2012. In response to this
action, some rice farmers are drilling or refurbishing water wells,
which is an expensive proposition. Dr. Larry Falconer, Texas Agri-
Life Extension Service economist, estimates the total well investment
(for one well) is over $275,000!
Another important aspect of water management is water quality. Dr.
Garry McCauley, Texas AgriLife Research rice agronomist, conducted
a study several years ago and found the sediment load of
water entering rice fields was more than that of water exiting fields.
In other words, rice fields serve as “lagoons” or “settling ponds” to
help purify water. In addition, biotic and abiotic processes in rice
fields help breakdown pesticides to minimize on- and off-target contamination
– all for the good, making our rice farmers excellent stewards
of the environment!
At the recent Rice Technical Working Group meeting in Arkansas,
I listened to Dr. Robbie Kröger, Mississippi State University water
quality specialist, talk about rice field drainage ditches. His studies
show vegetated drainage ditches act as “mini-wetlands” to reduce total
inorganic nitrogen loads by 47 percent and total inorganic phosphorous
loads by 53 percent. This means less polluted water entering the
Gulf of Mexico. Robbie also found low grade weirs built into drainage
ditches “create multiple sites for increased sedimentation, nutrient
transformation and removal.” Kinks need to be worked out in fine-tuning
and implementing this technology, but I believe it is a step in
the right direction – better management of the most important natural
resource in rice production, WATER!
Drs. Robbie Kröger, Garry McCauley and Larry Falconer
co-authored this article with Dr. Mo Way.
Careful land grading and seedbed preparation
before planting help maintain uniform
water depths in rice fields. Ideally, fields are
flooded continuously to a depth sufficient to suppress weeds, particularly
the grasses and small flower umbrella sedge. However, this
works only if the herbicides are effective when applied into the water.
The development of weed resistance to many of the into-the-water
herbicides necessitated a change to foliar active herbicides. Foliar herbicides
require drainage of the field to achieve good coverage, particularly if small weeds are to be effectively controlled.
Further complicating selection of the proper herbicides are the
different water management techniques used by growers. There are
four general categories: Continuous flood, Leather’s method, delayed
pinpoint flood and drill (dry) seeding. Optimal herbicide programs can
vary depending on water management technique.
A continuous flood system enhances herbicide efficacy and maximizes
weed control. Sprangletop and barnyardgrass problems are
essentially eliminated by the flood. Into-the-water-herbicides are
well suited to this system. When late postemergence applications
are needed, water is lowered to expose about 70 percent of weed
foliage to the herbicide spray, but the fields are never drained.
The Leather’s method uses a planned drain period (three to five
days) to improve stand establishment. Foundation herbicides are
applied prior to the reflood. Often, cold weather or windy conditions
in spring require early field drainage to facilitate rice establishment,
precluding the use of into-the-water treatments.
In a delayed pinpoint flood, the field is drained two to three weeks
after seeding to expose weeds to improve contact herbicide efficacy.
The duration of the drain depends on the method of application, e.g.
air or ground. A prolonged drain period can lead to substantial losses
of nitrogen fertilizer due to volatilization. These losses begin long
before the soil “cracks.” A pinpoint flood system encourages sprangletop
Drill-seeding favors weeds adapted to dryland seedbeds (e.g.
sprangletop and barnyardgrass) and is less favorable for aquatic
species (e.g. ricefield bulrush) because permanent flood is established
about 25 days after seeding. This system offers flexibility for
herbicide use when proximity to sensitive crops imposes restrictions
on aerial applications.
Work by Dr. Albert Fischer at UC Davis has proven several herbicide
combinations to be effective. Below are a few examples. Use
of product names does not infer an endorsement by UC.
Erratic control of weeds by a once effective herbicide program
may be a harbinger of resistance. Routinely rotate the mode(s) of
action used in your weed control program. More weed management
research results can be found at the California Rice Research Board
Web site: http://www.carrb.com/AnnualRpts.htm.